Viral haemorrhagic fevers

Statutory notification

Public health management

Important information

  • Infectious agent: haemorrhagic fever viruses (Ebolavirus, Lassa virus, Crimean-Congo virus, Marburg virus).
  • Transmission: dependent on virus. Crimean-Congo virus can be tick-borne or person-to-person. Lassa virus can be transmitted from rodents or person-to-person. Marburg and Ebolavirus can be transmitted from wild animals such as monkeys or person-to-person.
  • Incubation period: dependent on virus. Crimean-Congo virus 1-12 days (usually 1-3 days); Lassa virus 6-21 days; Marburg and Ebolavirus 2-21 days.
  • Infectious period: People are not known to be infectious until the onset of symptoms of Ebola and Marburg. People are infectious as long as their blood and secretions contain the virus.

Person to person spread of Crimean-Congo virus and Lassa virus may also occur after exposure to blood, excretions and secretions of patients.

  • Case exclusion: Isolate according to Ebola virus disease, CDNA National Guidelines for Public Health Units (external site).
  • Contact exclusion: Do not exclude, but surveillance is recommended.
  • Treatment: The World Health Organization recommends two monoclonal antibodies for the Zaire ebolavirus, a species of Ebolavirus. No treatment currently available in Australia.
  • Immunisation: Two vaccines available globally; both have been licensed in Europe and one in the United States. No vaccines are available for Sudan ebolavirus, a species of Ebolavirus.
  • Case follow-up: Is conducted by public health units and the Communicable Disease Control Directorate.


Notifiable disease data and reports

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Public Health