COVID-19 vaccine FAQs

Frequently asked questions for the Western Australian community about the COVID-19 vaccination.

COVID-19 vaccines

Which vaccines are currently approved for use in Australia?

There are currently three COVID-19 vaccines registered for use in Australia:

  • Comirnaty developed by Pfizer and BioNTech
  • Vaxzevria (AstraZeneca) developed by the University of Oxford and AstraZeneca
  • Spikevax (elasomeran) developed by Moderna Inc.

All COVID-19 vaccines available in Australia have been provisionally approved by the Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA), meaning they have met rigorous standards for safety, quality and efficacy.

Vaxzevria (AstraZeneca)

Who developed the Vaxzevria (AstraZeneca) COVID-19 vaccine?

The Vaxzevria (AstraZeneca) COVID-19 vaccine is developed by The University of Oxford and AstraZeneca in the United Kingdom.

How many doses of the vaccine is needed?

The Vaxzevria (AstraZeneca) COVID-19 vaccine requires two doses.

What is the timeframe between first and second doses?

The two doses of the Vaxzevria (AstraZeneca) COVID-19 vaccine are given between 10 and 12 weeks apart.

Is it safe?

Australians should be confident that Vaxzevria (AstraZeneca) COVID-19 vaccine meets the Therapeutic Goods Administration’s high safety and quality standards.

Who is it recommended for?

  • The Vaxzevria (AstraZeneca) COVID-19 vaccine is preferred for people aged 60 years and over
  • The Vaxzevria (AstraZeneca) COVID-19 vaccine can be used in people aged 60 years and over – where the benefits are likely to outweigh the risks for that individual and the person has made an informed decision based on an understanding of the risks and benefits

For anyone who has already had one dose of the Vaxzevria (AstraZeneca) COVID-19 vaccine without a serious adverse reaction, the Australian Technical Advisory Group on Immunisation advice is that it is safe to receive a second dose of the Vaxzevria (AstraZeneca) COVID-19 vaccine..

Pregnant women should seek advice from their GP. For more information read the COVID-19 vaccination decision guide for women who are pregnant, breastfeeding, or planning a pregnancy (external site).

How effective is it?

Vaxzevria (AstraZeneca) COVID-19 vaccine is highly effective at preventing severe disease. The Vaxzevria (AstraZeneca) COVID-19 vaccine is about 62-70% effective at preventing people from getting sick with COVID-19, based on information from clinical trial results.

Further information is available from the Information on Vaxzevria (AstraZeneca COVID-19 Vaccine (external site) fact sheet.

Comirnaty (Pfizer)

Who developed the Comirnaty (Pfizer) COVID-19 vaccine?

The Comirnaty (Pfizer) COVID-19 vaccine has been developed by Pfizer Inc. and BioNTech.

What is in the vaccine?

The Comirnaty (Pfizer) vaccine contains the mRNA and other substances to stabilize the vaccine: such as Distearoylphosphatidylcholine, cholesterol, potassium chloride, Monobasic potassium phosphate, sodium chloride, dibasic sodium phosphate dihydrate, Sucrose and water for injections.

How many doses of the vaccine is needed?

The Comirnaty (Pfizer) vaccine requires two doses.

What is the timeframe between first and second doses?

The two doses of the Comirnaty (Pfizer) COVID-19 vaccine are given between three and six weeks apart.

Is it safe?

Australians should be confident that Comirnaty (Pfizer) COVID-19 vaccine meets the Therapeutic Goods Administration’s high safety and quality standards.

Who is it recommended for?

The Comirnaty (Pfizer) COVID-19 vaccine is currently available to those aged 12 to 59 years. People aged 60 years and over, who have not received a first dose of AstraZeneca, will be eligible to receive the Comirnaty (Pfizer) COVID-19 vaccine in state-run vaccination clinics from the 17 September 2021.

How effective is it?

The Comirnaty (Pfizer) COVID-19 vaccine is highly effective at preventing severe disease. It is about 95% effective at preventing people from getting sick with COVID-19, based on initial clinical trial results.

Further information is available from theInformation on Comirnaty (Pfizer) COVID-19 Vaccine (external site) fact sheet.

Spikevax (Moderna)

Who developed Spikevax (Moderna)?

The Spikevax (Moderna) COVID-19 vaccine is developed by Moderna Inc.

How many doses of the vaccine is needed?

The Spikevax (Moderna) COVID-19 vaccine requires two doses.

What is the timeframe between first and second dose?

It is recommended that the two doses of the Spikevax (Moderna) COVID-19 vaccine are given 28-42 days apart (4-6 weeks).

Is it safe?

Australians should be confident that the Spikevax (Moderna) COVID-19 vaccine meets the Therapeutic Goods Administration’s high safety and quality standards.

Who is it recommended for?

The Spikevax (Moderna) COVID-19 vaccine is available for individuals 12 years and older and is available through participating community pharmacies.

How effective is it?

The Spikevax (Moderna) COVID-19 vaccine is highly effective at preventing severe disease. Initial clinical trial results show that it is about 94% effective at preventing people from getting sick with COVID-19.

Further information is available from the Information on Spikevax (Moderna) COVID-19 Vaccine (external site) fact sheet.

Getting the COVID-19 vaccine

Who is eligible for the COVID-19 vaccination?

Everyone aged 12 years and over is eligible for the COVID-19 vaccine.

Will the vaccine be free?

Yes, the COVID-19 vaccination is free for everyone living in Australia.

Vaccination providers cannot charge you for the COVID-19 vaccine or your appointments to receive the vaccine.

Is the vaccine mandatory?

Vaccination is only mandatory for people working in specified occupations. Everyone will be offered a vaccine and they are free. The Australian Government and WA Government strongly encourage people to get vaccinated. Doing so will help protect you, your family and the community.

You are encouraged to speak to your employer about whether the vaccine is mandated in your workplace.

For further information on the Directions for mandatory vaccination and exemption information please visit the WA Government COVID-19 vaccine webpage (external site) and the COVID-19 Emergency Directions webpage (external site).

How do I book my vaccination appointment?

For instructions on how to register and book online through VaccinateWA and how to book a child or dependant under your account please see the VaccinateWA frequently asked questions.

It is recommended that people have their Medicare card on them when making the booking. Walk-ins are not recommended.

Should I receive the vaccine if I have already had the COVID-19 infection?

You should still receive the vaccine even if you have had a previous COVID-19 infection as you may have some level of immunity, but this varies and may not last long. The vaccine has been designed specifically to give reliable, lasting immunity, however we are yet to determine how long it offers protection.

What proof of eligibility will I need to provide for my appointment?

All standard forms of identification (such as proof of age card, driver's licence, passport) will be accepted. Photo ID is not required for under 18s.

What proof of eligibility will I need to provide if I have an underlying medical condition?

For individuals attending their usual GP, the clinic’s records may be relied upon as evidence. Other forms of accepted evidence include:

  • My Health Record
  • A referral from GP or treating specialist
  • Alternative medical records, including:
  • a print-out of your medical history as recorded in your clinical records
  • a print-out of your chronic disease care plan
  • a discharge summary from a hospital or other medical facility, or
  • a valid script or medication prescribed to treat one or more of the relevant medical conditions.

Which vaccine will I receive?

  • People aged 12 years and over are eligible to receive the Comirnaty (Pfizer) and Spikevax (Moderna) COVID-19 vaccines. The Moderna vaccine is currently available through participating community pharmacies through the Vaccine Clinic Finder (external site).
  • People aged 60 years and over are also eligible to receive the Vaxzevria (AstraZeneca) COVID-19 vaccine (in addition to the Pfizer or Moderna COVID-19 vaccines).

All vaccines require two doses of the same vaccine.

If you have already received a dose of the AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine without a serious adverse reaction, the Australian Technical Advisory Group on Immunisation (ATAGI) advice is it is safe to receive a second dose of the Vaxzevria (AstraZeneca) COVID-19 vaccine.

Based on ATAGI (external site) advice, completing the vaccination course with the same vaccine is recommended. However, for individuals who meet the qualifying medical conditions, a medical practitioner can request an alternative COVID-19 vaccine for the second dose. Read more about the criteria and the process (external site) for applying to receive an alternative vaccine.

Will I receive a proof of vaccination document or certificate?

If you have provided a valid email address when booking your vaccination, you will receive a confirmation email following your vaccination, which will contain relevant information about your vaccination, including brand, batch, dose etc. This email will also outline important aftercare information for you.

This email is not an official immunisation record. Australians can already access their immunisation history statement through Medicare for proof of vaccination, both digitally and in hard copy, if required.

Statements can be viewed on an individual’s Medicare online account or via the Medicare app.

Your immunisation history statement will record your COVID-19 vaccinations, following each dose.

What happens if I am unwell on the day of my appointment?

If you feel unwell on the day of your appointment, please ensure you cancel your booking. If you are feeling unwell and have any symptoms you should also go and get a COVID-19 test.

Do I need to keep practising COVID-19 safe behaviours after I get the vaccine?

Getting a COVID-19 vaccine may help to prevent you from getting seriously ill from the virus. However, if you do get COVID-19, you could still spread the disease to friends, family, and others around you, particularly people at increased risk of severe illness. Therefore, it is important to continue practising good hygiene, physical distancing and other COVID safe practices after you get the vaccine.

Will the vaccination be required annually, like the influenza (flu) vaccination?

COVID-19 vaccines have only been available for several months, so it’s too early to know for sure how long protection will last. Evaluations are ongoing to answer this question and whether a 'booster' might be recommended at some point in the future.

COVID-19 vaccine doses and timing

How many doses of the vaccine will I need?

Two doses of the vaccine are required.

In some special circumstances, a third dose may be recommended for people who are severely immunocompromised.

For more information, see ATAGI recommendations on the use of a third primary dose of COVID-19 vaccine in individuals who are severely immunocompromised (external site).

What is the timing between the doses?

Recommended intervals between doses are:

  • Comirnaty (Pfizer):21-42 days (or 3-6 weeks)
  • Spikevax (Moderna): 28-42 days (4-6 weeks)
  • Vaxzevria (AstraZeneca):12 weeks

For people who are severely immunocompromised, the recommended interval for the third dose is 2 to 6 months after the second dose of vaccine.

What happens if the second dose of COVID-19 vaccine is given late or is missed?

If the second dose of a COVID-19 vaccine is overdue, the second dose should be given as soon as possible.

A single dose is likely to only provide short-term protection. The second dose will be effective regardless of how late it is given. Even if the second dose is late, no vaccine doses need to be repeated.

The need for any additional doses will be reviewed over time in line with the latest health advice.

Can I switch between brands for my first and second dose of COVID-19 vaccine?

It is recommended that the two-dose course should be completed with the same vaccine in most situations.

However, in some circumstances, where the benefits of a particular vaccine outweigh the risks or the original vaccine is not available in Australia, an alternative vaccine can be offered for the second dose upon medical advice.

For individuals who have received a first dose of the Vaxzevria (AstraZeneca) COVID-19 vaccine and meet the qualifying medical conditions, a medical practitioner can request an alternative COVID-19 vaccine for the second dose. Read more about the criteria and the process (external site) for applying to receive an alternative vaccine.

For further information, see page 15 of the Australian Technical Advisory Group on Immunisation (ATAGI) clinical guidance on use of COVID-19 vaccine in Australia in 2021 (external site).

I have a health condition which causes me to be severely immunocompromised, how do I get a third dose?

ATAGI has outlined specific criteria on who is considered severely immunocompromised and recommended for a third dose of a COVID-19 vaccine. The criteria can be found on ATAGI’s website (external site).

The best approach is to discuss this with your GP or treating specialist who best understands your health history.

For people wanting to receive a third dose at a State-run community vaccination clinic, you cannot book an appointment through VaccinateWA and must register in-person at a clinic. You can provide your proof of eligibility (i.e. the immunocompromised condition) at the clinic.

Evidence can include a:

  • letter from your doctor
  • medical record print out (e.g. MyHealth Record, hospital discharge summary, care plan, prescription etc.
  • condition-specific identifier, or
  • signed Eligibility Declaration Form (external site) if you cannot provide the specified evidence of your eligibility. You can print and bring a signed copy of this form to the clinic, or these forms will be available to complete when you register at the clinic.
COVID-19 vaccine and pregnancy/breastfeeding

Should women who are pregnant or planning a pregnancy get vaccinated?

Yes. The Australian Technical Advisory Group on Immunisation (ATAGI) and the Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (RANZCOG) recommended that pregnant women of all ages receive the Comirnaty (Pfizer) or Spikevax (Moderna) COVID-19 vaccines at any stage of pregnancy.

Pregnant women are a priority group for COVID-19 vaccination with these mRNA vaccines and are encouraged to discuss the decision in relation to timing of vaccination with their health professional. Women who are trying to become pregnant do not need to delay vaccination or avoid becoming pregnant after vaccination.

Pregnant women have a higher risk of severe illness if they are infected with COVID-19 compared to non-pregnant women with COVID-19 of the same age. There is also an increased risk of complications for the baby during pregnancy.

This includes an increased risk of:

  • hospitalisation
  • admission to an intensive care unit
  • invasive ventilation
  • stillbirth, and
  • premature birth.

For more information read the  RANZOG advice on Pregnancy and COVID-19 vaccination (external site)COVID-19 vaccination decision guide for women who are pregnant, breastfeeding, or planning a pregnancy (external site) and the ATAGI Clinical Guidance on COVID-19 vaccines in Australia (external site)

Should women who are breastfeeding get vaccinated?

Yes. If you are breastfeeding, it is preferable for you to have an mRNA COVID-19 vaccine (i.e. the Comirnaty (Pfizer) or Spikevax (Moderna) COVID-19 vaccines). The mRNA COVID-19 vaccines are the preferred vaccines for people aged under 60 years. You do not need to stop breastfeeding after vaccination.

For more information go to the COVID-19 vaccination decision guide for women who are pregnant, breastfeeding, or planning a pregnancy (external site) and the RANZOG advice on Pregnancy and COVID-19 vaccination (external site). This will be updated as more vaccines are registered for use in Australia.

I am pregnant and have had one dose of the AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine. Should I receive the same vaccine for my second dose?

Pregnant women who received a first dose of Vaxzevria (AstraZeneca) COVID-19 vaccine can receive either an mRNA COVID-19 vaccine (Comirnaty (Pfizer) or Spikevax (Moderna) COVID-19 vaccines) or the Vaxzevria (AstraZeneca) COVID-19 vaccine for their second dose, although an mRNA vaccine is preferred.

COVID-19 vaccination for children and adolescents

Can children and adolescents get the COVID-19 vaccine?

All Western Australians aged 12 years and over are eligible for COVID-19 vaccination.

Children aged under 12 are not currently eligible to be vaccinated.

Which vaccines are being offered to children and adolescents?

The Comirnaty (Pfizer) and Spikevax (Moderna) COVID-19 vaccines are currently being offered to all Western Australians aged over 12 years.

Two doses of the vaccines are required for optimal protection. The two doses are given at least 3-6 weeks apart for the Pfizer and 4-6 weeks apart for Moderna COVID-19 vaccines.

The Vaxzevria (AstraZeneca) vaccine is not recommended for children and adolescents. 

Why are children and adolescents being offered the COVID-19 vaccine? Why should young people get vaccinated?

Vaccination of young people provides direct protection against COVID-19 illness. This protects others and helps reduce the spread of COVID-19 in the community.

Millions of children and adolescents around the world have already received the COVID-19 vaccine. For example:

  • In the United States, around 45 per cent of 12-15 year olds have had their first dose of the Comirnaty (Pfizer) COVID-19 vaccine.
  • Among US adolescents 16-17 years of age, around 58 per cent have had their first dose of Comirnaty (Pfizer) and 43 per cent are fully vaccinated.
  • In Israel, around 40 per cent of 12-15 year olds have had their first dose of the Comirnaty (Pfizer) COVID-19 vaccine.
  • In Canada, around 76 per cent of 12-17 year olds have had their first dose of the Comirnaty (Pfizer) COVID-19 vaccine dose, and 59 per cent are fully vaccinated.

Learn more about ATAGI recommendations on the use of COVID-19 vaccines in all young adolescents in Australia (external site).

How do I know the Comirnaty (Pfizer) and Spikevax (Moderna) COVID-19 vaccines are safe for children and adolescents? What testing has been completed?

All vaccines undergo rigorous testing to ensure they are safe before being made available to people in Western Australia. Vaccines are only available to Australians once proven safe and effective for use by the Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA) (external site).

Are the vaccines effective in young people?

Yes. Clinical trials of Comirnaty (Pfizer) and Spikevax (Moderna) COVID-19 vaccines show evidence of strong vaccine effectiveness against symptomatic COVID-19 in adolescents.

How can 12-15 year olds get vaccinated?

Appointments for children aged 12-15 years can be booked by a parent or legal guardian through:

  • GPs, GP respiratory clinics, pharmacies or Aboriginal Medical Services: find a participating provider in your area through the Vaccine Clinic Finder (external site), or;
  • a State-run vaccination clinic either:
    • Online at VaccinateWA, registered as a dependant under the VaccinateWA (external site) account of a parent or legal guardian. Instructions on how to book a dependant online are available in the VaccinateWA FAQs
    • By phone on 13COVID (13 268 43), if the parent or legal guardian does not have a VaccinateWA (external site) account, 13 COVID can register them and then register a dependant.

Children with specified medical conditions are recommended to get vaccinated by their GP, as they have a good understanding of their medical needs.

How can 16 and 17 year olds get vaccinated?

People aged 16-17 years can book to receive a COVID-19 vaccine through:

  • GPs, GP respiratory clinics, pharmacies or Aboriginal Medical Services: find a participating provider in your area through the Vaccine Clinic Finder (external site), or;
  • a State-run vaccination clinic:
    • Online at VaccinateWA (external site) if they have a valid email address, or
    • By phone on 13 COVID (13 268 43) if they do not have a valid email address, or if they need assistance.

What happens when parents do not agree on vaccinating a child or dependant?

A parent or legal guardian must provide consent for a child or dependant to receive a COVID-19 vaccine, where the child is not considered to be a mature minor. The  COVID-19 vaccination consent form (PDF 252KB) requires the signature of one parent or legal guardian for vaccination of a child or dependant to proceed, or consent must be provided verbally over the phone.

Where there is joint custody of a child or dependant, and the parents have differing views on whether the child or dependant should be vaccinated, the parents are advised to speak with their GP or medical practitioner to reach a joint decision.

Where the parents cannot reach a joint decision, the matter can be assessed in court to decide what is in the child or dependant’s best interests.

What happens if there is a court order in place for a child or dependant?

Where a court order is in place for a child or dependant and the legal responsibility for health care rests with one parent only, consent to receive the COVID-19 vaccine must be provided by the designated parent.

COVID-19 vaccine consent for 12-15 year olds

Can 12-15 year-olds give their own consent to receive a COVID-19 vaccine?

No. For booking and administration of COVID-19 vaccines through the state-run vaccination clinics, GP's and pharmacies, a parent or legal guardian must provide consent for this age group.

If 12-15 year-olds want to receive a COVID-19 vaccine through a school-based clinic or visit a state-run vaccination clinic with the school, they will need to provide a consent form signed by their parent or guardian.

For more information, see the WA Health Consent to Treatment Policy (external site).

How can a parent or legal guardian provide valid consent for a 12-15 year-old?

If the child has been registered and booked in through VaccinateWA (external site), the parent or legal guardian will receive a booking confirmation email advising them to:

  • attend the clinic with their child to give verbal consent, or
  • be available by phone to give verbal consent, or
  • download and print a COVID-19 vaccination consent form (PDF 252KB) from HealthyWA and sign it, for the child to present to the clinic.

Parental or legal guardian consent must be provided and confirmed before a vaccine can be administered.

Does an adult need to attend a clinic with a 12-15 year old?

Yes, a 12-15 year old must be accompanied by:

  • their parent or legal guardian on the day of their appointment, or
  • another person aged 18 and over; with a COVID-19 vaccination consent form (PDF 252KB) signed by the parent or legal guardian, or consent from the parent or legal guardian provided verbally over the phone.

What if a parent or legal guardian cannot attend the clinic on the day of the 12-15 year old’s vaccination?

If a parent or legal guardian is not present for the appointment, a signed COVID-19 vaccination consent form (PDF 252KB) must be presented. Alternatively, the parent or legal guardian may provide verbal consent over the phone at the time of vaccination when phoned by the nurse.

If consent by a parent or legal guardian cannot be obtained on the day, the 12-15 year old child cannot be vaccinated.

If the child attends the clinic with proof of consent, but without their parent or legal guardian, they must still be accompanied by a person aged 18 years and over.

How can a parent or legal guardian provide consent for 12-15 year olds to receive a COVID-19 vaccine through a school-based vaccination program?

Children aged 12-15 years who want to be vaccinated through a school clinic or visit a state-run vaccination clinic with the school will need a signed consent form from a parent or legal guardian before they will be allowed to attend a clinic or receive a vaccine.

The school will provide consent forms to parents for completion. The COVID-19 vaccination consent form (PDF 252KB) form is also available on the HealthyWA website for parents or legal guardians to download, print and sign.

What is ‘valid consent’?

For consent to be valid, it must be:

  • Voluntary - It must be given by the patient themselves and must not be unduly influenced by the health practitioner, friends or family.
  • Informed - It must be given after the potential risks and benefits of the relevant vaccine, the risks of not having it, and any alternative options have been explained to the person.
  • Given by a person with capacity – It must be given by a person with the intellectual and emotional capacity to understand the information presented to them and make reasonable judgements about receiving the vaccine.
  • Specific to the treatment – The consent must cover the treatment to be performed.
  • Current – The consent must be reviewed if the person’s views, circumstances (e.g. adverse reaction to previous dose) or ability to meet the above criteria have changed.

Can a 12-15 year old refuse a COVID-19 vaccination that a parent or legal guardian has previously provided consent for?

Yes. If a child aged 12-15 does not want to be vaccinated, they do not have to, even if their parent or guardian has given consent for them to have the vaccine.

The wishes of the individual will be respected, and the parent or legal guardian will be told that the immunisation was not completed for this reason.

For more information, see the WA Health Consent to Treatment Policy (external site).

Can a 12-15 year old request a COVID-19 vaccination that a parent or legal guardian has not provided consent for?

If a child aged 12-15 wants to get the COVID-19 vaccine and the parent or legal guardian has not provided consent, it is recommended that the child discuss the matter with a GP or health practitioner.

For more information, see the WA Health Consent to Treatment Policy (external site).

COVID-19 vaccine consent for 16-17 year olds

Can 16 and 17 year olds give their own consent to receive a COVID-19 vaccine?

Yes. In most cases, people aged 16-17 years have the intellectual capacity to provide valid consent. People aged 16-17 are likely to be judged mature minors by health professionals, unless other factors limit their capacity (e.g. an intellectual or mental disability).

People aged 16-17 can provide their own written consent online to receive the COVID-19 vaccine, when they book an appointment through VaccinateWA (external site).

On the day of their appointment they will be assessed by the health professional prior to receiving the vaccine. The health professional will determine the person’s maturity and whether they have the intellectual and emotional capacity to consent or decline treatment as a mature minor.

If the person is judged to be a mature minor, their consent will be confirmed, and they can receive the vaccine.

If a 16-17 year old wants to receive a COVID-19 vaccine through a school-based clinic or visit a state-run vaccination clinic with the school, they will need to provide a consent form signed by their parent or guardian.

For more information, see the WA Health Consent to Treatment Policy (external site).

Does an adult need to attend a clinic with a 16-17 year old?

No, not if the 16-17 year old has been judged to be a mature minor at their appointment. They can attend the vaccination clinic by themselves or with friends or family.

However, if a 16-17 year old is not judged to be a mature minor at their appointment, they will not be able to receive the COVID-19 vaccine without written consent from a parent or legal guardian and an accompanying adult.

A parent or guardian can download and print the COVID-19 vaccination consent form (PDF 252KB) and sign it for 16-17 year olds who require written consent. An adult will need to accompany a 16-17 year old to their appointment if they have not been judged to be a mature minor. 

What is valid consent?

For consent to be valid, it must be:

  • Voluntary - It must be given by the patient themselves and must not be unduly influenced by the health practitioner, friends or family.
  • Informed - It must be given after the potential risks and benefits of the relevant vaccine, the risks of not having it, and any alternative options have been explained to the person.
  • Given by a person with capacity – It must be given by a person with the intellectual and emotional capacity to understand the information presented to them and make reasonable judgements about receiving the vaccine.
  • Specific to the treatment – The consent must cover the treatment to be performed.
  • Current – The consent must be reviewed if the person’s views, circumstances (e.g. adverse reaction to previous dose) or ability to meet the above criteria have changed.

Can a 16-17 year old refuse a COVID-19 vaccination that a parent or legal guardian has previously provided consent for?

Yes. If a 16-17 year old, who has been assessed as a mature minor, does not want to be vaccinated, they do not have to – even if their parent or guardian has given consent for them to have the vaccine.

The wishes of the individual will be respected, and the parent or guardian will be told that the immunisation was not completed for this reason.

For more information, see the WA Health Consent to Treatment Policy (external site).

COVID-19 vaccine and overseas travel

I'm travelling overseas, can I get a COVID-19 vaccination before I leave Australia?

Australian citizens and permanent residents who have an Australian Border Force (external site) travel exemption are able to access COVID-19 vaccinations.

To be eligible, travel exemptions must be granted on or after 20 May 2021 for one of the following reasons:

  • your travel is as part of the response to the COVID-19 outbreak, including the provision of aid
  • your travel is for your business or employer
  • you are travelling to receive urgent medical treatment that is not available in Australia
  • you are travelling on compassionate or compelling grounds
  • you are travelling for urgent or unavoidable personal business
  • your travel is in the national interest.

If you have a travel exemption granted for eligible reasons before 20 May 2021, and have not left Australia, you can submit a new travel exemption request. Upload all relevant documents and state that you wish to be eligible for vaccination before travelling.

Apply for a travel exemption (external site).

You will not be eligible for a COVID-19 vaccination if your outward travel exemption is granted for ‘compelling reasons’ for at least three months

COVID-19 vaccines before your travel are not mandatory. You should follow expert health advice and access a COVID-19 vaccine as soon as practicable.

I received a first dose of a COVID-19 vaccine overseas that’s not yet available in Australia. Which vaccine should I get for my second dose?

People returning to Australia from overseas who received a first dose of a COVID-19 vaccine that is not available in Australia can be offered an alternative vaccine brand to complete their two doses. (Note, Janssen COVID-19 Vaccine by Johnson & Johnson only requires a single dose.)

The recommended interval to receive a second COVID-19 vaccine dose is 4 to 12 weeks after the first dose. If the second dose is overdue it should be given as soon as possible.

Please email COVID.Immunisation@health.wa.gov.au for advice on which vaccine you should receive for your second dose.

How do I register a vaccine I received overseas?

Australian Immunisation Register (AIR) – the AIR currently provides Australians with two options for providing evidence of their COVID-19 vaccinations:

  • COVID-19 Digital Certificate – for people who have received all required doses of a vaccine as approved for use in Australia
  • Immunisation History Statement – for people who have had one COVID-19 vaccination, different COVID-19 vaccines, or at intervals not recommended by ATAGI.

Further information can be found at Services Australia, How to get proof of your COVD-19 vaccinations (external site).

Will people still need to enter quarantine for 14 days if they come into WA from overseas or interstate, and have been vaccinated?

Yes. Vaccination is not a complete substitute for other public health interventions. Testing, contact tracing, quarantine and isolation will remain in place until evidence is established about the degree to which the vaccination prevents transmission, and adequate community coverage is achieved in Australia. In Australia, mandatory quarantine with COVID-19 testing at regular intervals is still considered the best strategy for managing the potential public health risk posed by incoming travellers.

COVID-19 vaccine safety and side effects

The COVID-19 vaccines have been developed so quickly, how can we be sure they are safe?

All available vaccines undergo rigorous testing to ensure they are safe before being made available to people in Western Australia. The Australian Government is responsible for selecting and purchasing vaccines. Vaccines will only be available to Australians once proven safe and effective for use by the Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA) (external site).

Safe and effective COVID-19 vaccines have been able to be developed faster than other vaccines because of several reasons:

  • a level of funding and commitment not seen before
  • the use of innovative technologies
  • researchers and vaccine manufacturers around the world working together to respond to the pandemic.

Some steps of the clinical development and assessment processes have been done at the same time, instead of one after the other, as is usually the case. This has reduced the time it takes to complete the work, without omitting important steps, and large clinical trials of the vaccines were able to progress as quickly as possible.

What is in the vaccine?

The Consumer Medicine Information (CMI) produced by the Therapeutic Goods Administration contains a full list of all vaccine ingredients. See the CMI for:

Can I get COVID-19 from the vaccine?

No. COVID-19 illness is caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus. None of the vaccines approved for use in Australia contain this virus, so they cannot cause COVID-19 illness. This means the COVID-19 vaccines cannot give you COVID-19.

If someone develops COVID-19 symptoms shortly after their vaccination, should they get tested for COVID-19?

None of the vaccines approved for use in Australia contain a live virus that can cause COVID-19. This means that the COVID-19 vaccine cannot make you sick with COVID-19.

Testing someone who develops symptoms of fever, headache, fatigue or muscle/joint aches within two days of receiving a COVID-19 vaccination, and where the symptoms last less than two days, is not always necessary.

If you develop the types of symptoms that are commonly reported a day or so after vaccination and you have NO respiratory symptoms (no cough, shortness of breath, sore throat, runny nose or loss of smell), it is more likely that you are having an expected response to the vaccine. You should call your doctor and ask for advice if you have any respiratory symptoms, are unsure, or think you might have been exposed to someone with COVID-19.

Will I be protected from COVID-19 once I get the vaccine?

Making safe and effective COVID-19 vaccines available to all Australians is a key component of Australia’s strategy for protecting the community from COVID-19.

No vaccines offer total immunity but help to reduce the spread of infection and severity of illness if you are infected.

After you get the vaccine, it is important to continue practising good hygiene, physical distancing, and staying home if you're sick and getting tested for COVID-19.

Is one vaccine better than the other?

Providing access to safe and effective COVID-19 vaccines for everyone in Australia is a priority for the Australian Government. The TGA assesses all COVID-19 vaccines before they can be used in Australia.

All vaccines approved by the TGA have been proven to be safe and effective in protecting against COVID-19 illness, including against severe disease.

What are the possible side effects of the COVID-19 vaccine? Will I feel unwell after vaccination?

All vaccines can cause side effects. Usually these are mild. You may experience minor side effects following vaccination. Most side effects last no more than a couple of days and you will recover without any problems.

Just over half the people who have received a COVID-19 vaccine to date in Western Australia report experiencing some symptoms when contacted by SMS three days after vaccination. The most common side effects after COVID-19 vaccination are usually mild and include:

  • pain, redness and/or swelling where you received the needle
  • headache
  • fatigue
  • muscle and/or joint ache
  • mild fever.

When they occur, these symptoms typically start within 24 hours of vaccination, last one to two days, and resolve without treatment.

These types of reactions are often a sign that your immune system is responding to the vaccine and helping to teach your body how to fight off COVID-19 if you are later exposed to the virus.

Serious reactions like allergic reactions are extremely rare. If you have a reaction that is unexpected, or if you are unsure, consult with your GP.

If you believe your reaction is severe or life-threatening you should call triple zero (000) for an ambulance or go to your closest emergency department.

Significant and unexpected reactions should be reported to the Western Australian Vaccine Safety Surveillance (WAVSS). Your immunisation provider should report all suspected significant reactions, but you can also do it yourself on the SAFEVAC Reporting website (external site).

For more information visit the Australian Government website (external site).

What are the symptoms of thrombosis with thrombocytopenia syndrome (TTS)?

Thrombosis with thrombocytopenia syndrome (TTS) is very rare and occurs around 4-28 days after vaccination. Symptoms can include abdominal pain and/or severe headache that does not settle with pain relief. People should seek medical attention immediately if they experience these symptoms:

  • a severe persistent headache with additional features:
  • appears at least four days after vaccination
  • does not improve with simple painkillers
  • may be worse when lying down or accompanied by nausea and vomiting
  • neurological symptoms such as:
  • blurred vision
  • difficulty with speech
  • drowsiness
  • seizures
  • shortness of breath or chest pain
  • a swollen leg
  • persistent abdominal (belly) pain
  • tiny blood spots under the skin away from the site of injection together with symptoms above.

If you believe your reaction is severe or life-threatening you should call triple zero (000) for an ambulance or go to your closest emergency department.

Significant and unexpected reactions should be reported to the Western Australian Vaccine Safety Surveillance (WAVSS). Your immunisation provider should report all suspected significant reactions, but you can also do it yourself on the SAFEVAC Reporting website (external site).

Further information on TTS can be found at Patient information on AstraZeneca vaccine and thrombosis with thrombocytopenia syndrome (external site)

For more information visit the Australian Government website (external site).

What is myocarditis and pericarditis?

Myocarditis is inflammation of the heart muscle. Pericarditis is inflammation of the outer lining of the heart. These two conditions can occur together. Both these conditions occur relatively commonly in the general population.

A small number of myocarditis and pericarditis cases have been reported in Australia after vaccination with an mRNA COVID-19 vaccine (the Comirnaty (Pfizer) and Spikevax (Moderna) COVID-19 vaccines). The Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA) is monitoring these cases, but the risk remains very low. Most reported cases have been mild with patients recovering quickly and were more common in males aged under 30 years after their second dose of the Comirnaty (Pfizer) COVID-19 vaccine.

Symptoms typically appear within 1-5 days, and can include:

  • chest pain, pressure or discomfort
  • palpitations (irregular heartbeat, skipped beats or ‘fluttering’
  • fainting
  • shortness of breath
  • pain with breathing.

COVID-19 vaccination should be deferred in people with ongoing cardiac inflammation or those who develop myocarditis/pericarditis after their first dose.

People with a history of most chronic cardiovascular conditions, including prior myocarditis, pericarditis or endocarditis more than 6 months ago, coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction, stable heart failure, arrhythmias, prior history of rheumatic heart disease (RHD), Kawasaki Disease, most congenital heart disease and people with implantable cardiac devices are recommended to receive COVID-19 vaccine. No specific precautions are recommended for people in these groups.

People with recent (i.e. within the past 6 months) or current inflammatory cardiac illness (eg: myocarditis, pericarditis or endocarditis); acute rheumatic fever or acute rheumatic heart disease; complex or severe congenital heart disease; acute decompensated heart failure or a history of cardiac transplant; or who are aged 12-29 years with dilated cardiomyopathy should consult a GP, immunisation specialist or cardiologist about the best timing of vaccination and whether any additional precautions are recommended.

For more information, see Guidance on Myocarditis and Pericarditis after mRNA COVID-19 vaccines (external site).

Should you take blood thinning medication (such as Aspirin) before having the Vaxzevria (AstraZeneca) COVID-19 vaccine?

It is not recommended to take over the counter medicine before receiving a vaccination for the purpose of preventing potential side effects.

You should continue to take prescribed medication unless advised by your medical practitioner.

Always discuss any existing medical conditions with your GP or immunisation provider before you get any vaccine.

Is the vaccine safe if I have allergies?

Almost everyone can receive a COVID-19 vaccine. This includes people with a history of severe allergies or anaphylaxis to food, drugs, venom, or latex and those with allergic conditions, including asthma, eczema or hay fever.

If you have had anaphylaxis (a type of severe allergic reaction) to a particular type of COVID-19 vaccine or to an ingredient in a vaccine, then you should not have that COVID-19 vaccine. You may be able to have an alternative COVID-19 vaccine.

Your immunisation provider will ask you about any potential allergies prior to vaccination and decide how best to manage your situation.

What about people who have had an allergic reaction to a vaccine or medication?

Additional precautions are currently recommended for people with a history of anaphylaxis to previous vaccines and/or multiple drugs, such as consulting an allergy specialist or staying for 30 minutes of observation in a facility with medical staff.

These precautions apply to people who:

  • have had a suspected allergic reaction after a dose of a COVID-19 vaccine
  • have had an allergic reaction (but not anaphylaxis) to an ingredient of a COVID-19 vaccine
  • have had anaphylaxis to other vaccines or to medications (including injectable or oral medications) where there may be common ingredients with a COVID-19 vaccine such as:
  • people with a history of confirmed mastocytosis (a mast cell disorder) with recurrent anaphylaxis, and who require treatment for this condition.

Your immunisation provider will ask you about any potential allergies prior to vaccination and decide how best to manage your situation.

What happens if I have an allergic reaction to my first dose of vaccine? Will I be able to complete the 2-dose series with a different brand of COVID-19 vaccine?

It is very uncommon for people to have anaphylaxis or a serious allergic reaction to the COVID-19 vaccine. However, if you did experience a serious allergic reaction to the first dose of COVID-19 vaccination, you should be referred to a specialist immunology or vaccination clinic for further assessment. Decisions around second dose should be dependent upon that discussion.

The specialist may recommend an alternate brand for the second dose. If an alternate brand is used for the second dose, a third dose of COVID-19 vaccine does not need to be given.

Is the vaccine safe for those with chronic medical conditions?

People with chronic medical conditions are recommended to get the vaccine, as they are at higher risk of severe illness with COVID-19.

If you have a bleeding disorder or you are taking a blood-thinning medication (anticoagulant), tell your immunisation provider.

Vaxzevria (AstraZeneca) COVID-19 vaccine

People with a history of the following conditions should not receive the Vaxzevria (AstraZeneca) COVID-19 vaccine and should be offered an alternative vaccine (e.g. Comirnaty (Pfizer) or Spikevax (Moderna) COVID-19 vaccines):

  • cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (a type of brain clot)
  • heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (a rare reaction to heparin treatment)
  • idiopathic splanchnic (mesenteric, portal and splenic) venous thrombosis (blood clot in the abdominal veins)
  • antiphospholipid syndrome associated with blood clots
  • capillary leak syndrome
  • thrombosis with thrombocytopenia occurring after a previous dose
  • anaphylaxis or severe immediate allergic reaction to first dose
  • severe adverse event following first dose attributable to the vaccine.

Comirnaty (Pfizer) or Spikevax (Moderna) COVID-19 vaccines

If you have or had any of the following heart conditions, you can still have the Comirnaty (Pfizer) or Spikevax (Moderna) COVID-19 vaccine. But you should talk to your doctor first to discuss the best timing of vaccination, and whether any extra precautions are needed:

  • recent (i.e within the last 6 months) or current myocarditis, pericarditis or endocarditis
  • acute rheumatic fever or rheumatic heart disease
  • for people aged 12-29 years: dilated cardiomyopathy
  • complex or severe congenital heart disease
  • severe heart failure
  • if you have had a heart transplant.

If myocarditis or pericarditis has developed and has been attributed to the first dose of the Comirnaty (Pfizer) or Spikevax (Moderna) COVID-19 vaccines, do not have another dose of these mRNA COVID-19 vaccines, and discuss options regarding future doses with your doctor.

If you have had anaphylaxis (a type of severe allergic reaction) to the Comirnaty (Pfizer) or Spikevax (Moderna) COVID-19 vaccines or to an ingredient in one of these vaccines, then you should not have that COVID-19 vaccine. You may be able to have an alternative COVID-19 vaccine (e.g. Vaxzevria (AstraZeneca) COVID-19 vaccine).

Can I have a COVID-19 vaccine if I am immunocompromised?

Yes. If you are immunocompromised it means you have a weakened immune system, either from an underlying medical condition or from medical treatment that weakens your immune system.

The COVID-19 vaccine is highly recommended for people who are immunocompromised because of their increased risk of severe illness with COVID-19.

The Australian Technical Advisory Group on Immunisation (ATAGI) recommends a third dose as part of the primary course of vaccination for people who are severely immunocompromised. Further information is available in the ATAGI recommendations on the use of a third primary dose of COVID-19 vaccine in individuals who are severely immunocompromised (external site).

None of the vaccines approved for use in Australia contain a live virus. This means the COVID-19 vaccine cannot make you sick with COVID-19.

If you are taking an immune-weakening treatment (immunosuppressant/immunomodulator), including chemotherapy, you should discuss the best timing of vaccination with your treating doctor.

For more information on use of the vaccine in people with immunocompromise, see the COVID-19 vaccination decision guide for people with immunocompromise (external site).

What is capillary leak syndrome?

Capillary leak syndrome is an extremely rare but severe relapsing-remitting condition where fluid from small blood vessels (capillaries) leaks into surrounding tissue.

Cases of capillary leak syndrome after the Vaxzevria (AstraZeneca) COVID-19 vaccine have been reported (external site) overseas. The Therapeutic Goods Administration has received a report of one case (external site) of a patient who died from multi-organ failure but had signs of capillary leakage. It is not clear whether this was linked to the Vaxzevria (AstraZeneca) COVID-19 vaccine as other causes could not be ruled out.

A history of the capillary leak syndrome is a contraindication to the Vaxzevria (AstraZeneca) COVID-19 vaccine. This means if you have had capillary leak syndrome in the past, you should have an alternative vaccine.

Do COVID-19 vaccines cause infertility?

No, none of the COVID-19 vaccines currently under review by the Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA) cause infertility.

The TGA will not approve a vaccine for use in Australia unless it is safe and effective (external site). This includes impacts on fertility.

The theory that COVID-19 vaccines cause infertility is based on the disproven idea that one of the spike proteins in COVID-19 and the Syncytin-1 protein (which help placenta development) are the same. They are not.

There is no evidence suggesting that fertility problems are a side effect of ANY vaccine.

Women who are trying to become pregnant do not need to delay vaccination or avoid becoming pregnant after vaccination.

In line with guidance from the Australian Technical Advisory Group on Immunisation (ATAGI) and the Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (RANZCOG) it is recommended that pregnant women receive an mRNA COVID-19 vaccine (the Comirnaty (Pfizer) or Spikevax (Moderna) COVID-19 vaccines) at any stage of pregnancy.

For more information read the COVID-19 vaccination decision guide for women who are pregnant, breastfeeding, or planning a pregnancy (external site).

COVID-19 vaccine effectiveness

Is the vaccine effective?

Clinical trial and real-world experience for the approved COVID-19 vaccines have shown they are safe and effective in preventing symptomatic illness including severe COVID-19 disease and hospitalisation

How will a vaccine prevent COVID-19?

The coronavirus that causes COVID-19 has spikes of protein on each viral particle. These spike proteins allow the virus to attach to cells and cause disease.

The vaccines help the body to 'recognise' these spike proteins as foreign and latch onto them. This can prevent the virus from entering human cells and lower their chances of getting COVID-19 illness if they encounter the coronavirus.

Is the purpose of the vaccine to prevent community transmission, or reduce symptoms?

Getting a COVID-19 vaccine may help to prevent you from getting seriously ill. If you do contract COVID-19, you could still spread the disease to friends, family, and others around you, particularly people at increased risk for severe illness.

Experts continue to conduct more studies about the effect of COVID-19 vaccination on severity of illness from COVID-19, as well as its ability to prevent even mild or asymptomatic illness and keep vaccinated people from spreading the virus.

How long does protection from the vaccine last?

At this stage, there isn’t enough information to know for sure how long protection against COVID-19 will last. This is why it’s still important to continue practising good hygiene, physical distancing and other COVID-safe recommendations, after you have been vaccinated.

The Therapeutic Goods Administration will continue to monitor the ongoing efforts to establish how well the vaccines protect over time.

Will the vaccines be effective against different strains (including the Delta strain)?

Currently approved vaccines have been shown to be effective to provide strong protection against new variants as these vaccines work to create a broad immune response. The mutations causing these variants should not make the vaccines ineffective. A study from the UK found the Comirnaty (Pfizer) vaccine is 96% effective against hospitalisation for the Delta strain after the second dose. This same study found Vaxzevria (AstraZeneca) to be 92% effective against hospitalisation after two doses. Initial clinical trial results show that the Spikevax (Moderna) COVID-19 vaccine is about 94% effective at preventing people from getting sick with COVID-19.

Will I need a booster dose of a COVID-19 vaccine?

The latest national health advice from the Australian Technical Advisory Group on Immunisation (ATAGI) is that a two-dose course of any of the vaccines available in Australia provides strong protection against COVID-19.

The need for third doses in people who have conditions that compromise their immune system is being considered by ATAGI. A third dose is currently only recommended for people who have been given a second dose before the absolute minimum 14-day (2 week) interval.

ATAGI anticipates that additional booster doses for other populations may be required in the future. Additional doses are currently being considered but no recommendation has yet been made for the general population at this stage.

For further information on this advice, see the ATAGI statement (external site).

Influenza (flu) and COVID-19 vaccines

Should I get an influenza (flu) vaccine as well as a COVID-19 vaccine?

The COVID-19 vaccine does not protect against influenza, so you should still have an influenza vaccine. To provide greater protection throughout the COVID-19 pandemic and to minimise the possibility of contracting both influenza and COVID-19 infection at the same time, it is recommended to get the influenza vaccine in readiness for the winter influenza season.

It is recommended that the influenza vaccine is administered 7 days before or after receiving a dose of COVID-19 vaccine.

When booking in to receive a COVID-19 or influenza vaccine, please ensure there is an interval of 7 days between receiving each vaccine. This should be discussed with the immunisation provider before attending a vaccine appointment to avoid being refused a vaccination at the appointment.

Read more detailed guidance about COVID-19 vaccines and influenza vaccination (external site).

Can I have the influenza (flu) vaccine and the COVID-19 vaccine at the same time?

Getting an influenza vaccine and a COVID-19 vaccine on the same day is not recommended. It is best to wait at least 7 days between receiving a dose of seasonal influenza vaccine and a dose of the COVID-19 vaccine.

However, there are circumstances when a shorter interval between a dose of influenza vaccine and COVID-19 vaccine (I.e. less than 7 days, including co-administration) may be justified, such as:

  • if the preferred minimum interval (7 days) will likely lead to an individual missing the opportunity to receive either of the vaccine doses.
  • if there is an urgent need to administer either of these vaccines because of the requirement for protection from influenza or COVID-19 in the local environment.

This should be discussed with the immunisation provider before attending a vaccine appointment to avoid being refused a vaccination at the appointment.

Read more detailed guidance about COVID-19 vaccines and influenza vaccination (external site).

Should I receive the COVID-19 vaccine before the influenza vaccine?

There is no specific recommendation regarding the order of receiving an influenza vaccine and either dose of a COVID-19 vaccine.

Read more detailed guidance about COVID-19 vaccines and influenza vaccination (external site).

COVID-19 vaccine mythbusters

Read the COVID-19 vaccine mythbusters and FAQs for Aboriginal people (PDF 1.2MB).

Some social media posts say the vaccine isn’t safe, is this true?

As with anything regarding your health you should listen to the advice of health professionals and other trusted sources.

Health professionals are updated with the latest information throughout the COVID-19 pandemic, we should continue to listen to their advice.

If you have concerns or questions about the vaccine, discuss them with your doctor and make sure you get your information from trusted sources including health.wa.gov.au, HealthyWA and Australian Government website (external site).

Are Aboriginal people being used as guinea pigs for the vaccine?

Aboriginal people are not the first people to receive the COVID-19 vaccines. Over a billion people across the world have already received the vaccine safely.

COVID-19 vaccination is voluntary. The COVID-19 vaccination is recommended to protect yourself, Elders and community.

Are Aboriginal people being told to get the vaccine before everyone else?

All Australians will have the opportunity to receive the COVID-19 vaccine that is appropriate for them when available. The highest priority groups are eligible to get their vaccines first, including at-risk front-line health care workers, quarantine and border workers, those living and working in aged and disability residential care facilities and Aboriginal people.

Is the COVID-19 vaccine killing Aboriginal people or making them sick?

Some people may experience mild and temporary side effects after vaccination such as tiredness, muscle soreness and redness around the injection site and mild fever. This is normal for any vaccine and there is no evidence that Aboriginal people react worse to the vaccine than others.

Serious reactions from the vaccine are extremely rare. Recent serious side effects of the COVID-19 AstraZeneca vaccine are being closely monitored by the Therapeutic Good Administration (TGA) and the Australian Technical Advisory Group on Immunisation (ATAGI).

Will the vaccine alter my DNA?

The vaccine does not change DNA.

The COVID-19 vaccines work by getting cells to make the COVID-19 specific spike protein. Immune cells recognise the protein as foreign and this triggers the immune system to make antibodies that can target and destroy the virus. This process does not alter your DNA in any way.

Does the COVID-19 vaccine implant a microchip to track movements?

The COVID-19 vaccines do not contain a tracking microchip and there is no evidence or data to support this. Microchips are too large to be administered through needle injection.

It is best to receive your information from trusted sources including health.wa.gov.au and HealthyWA.

Only old people get or die from COVID, so why should I get the vaccine?

Anyone can get COVID-19 and it remains a major risk around the world. The elderly and people with chronic conditions such as heart disease and diabetes are most at risk of serious COVID-19 infections.

Even if you are not an older person, you should still get vaccinated against COVID-19 with the appropriate vaccine for your age group, when you become eligible. The vaccine will strengthen your immune system by training it to recognise and fight the COVID-19 virus before it makes you very sick and minimises the chances of passing it to others.

Protecting those most at risk from COVID-19 and reducing the impact of the virus, including Elders, older persons and people with pre-existing medical conditions, continues to be a priority.

More information

COVID-19 vaccines – Is it true? | Australian Government Department of Health (external site)

Last reviewed: 15-10-2021

This publication is provided for education and information purposes only. It is not a substitute for professional medical care. Information about a therapy, service, product or treatment does not imply endorsement and is not intended to replace advice from your healthcare professional. Readers should note that over time currency and completeness of the information may change. All users should seek advice from a qualified healthcare professional for a diagnosis and answers to their medical questions.

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